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Title 

The ancient phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling system is a master regulator of energy and carbon metabolism in algae

Authors 

Rishiram RamananQuynh Giao TranDae Hyun ChoJae Eun JungByung-Hyuk KimSang Yoon ShinSae Hae ChoiK H LiuDae Soo KimSeon-Jin LeeJ L CrespoHee Gu LeeHee-Mock OhHee-Sik Kim

Publisher 

American Society of Plant Biologists

Issue Date 

2018

Citation 

Plant Physiology

Abstract 

Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and "omics" approaches to demonstrate that PI3K signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents. Lipid profiling of wild-type and PI3K KD lines showed significantly reduced membrane lipid breakdown under nitrogen starvation (-N) in the KD. RNA-seq and network analyses showed that under -N conditions, the KD line carried out lipogenesis rather than lipid hydrolysis by initiating de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, which was supported by tricarboxylic acid cycle down-regulation and via acetyl-CoA synthesis from glycolysis. Remarkably, autophagic responses did not have primacy over inositide signaling in algae, unlike in mammals and vascular plants. The mutant displayed a fundamental shift in intracellular energy flux, analogous to that in tumor cells. The high free fatty acid levels and reduced mitochondrial ATP generation led to decreased cell viability. These results indicate that the PI3K signal transduction pathway is the metabolic gatekeeper restraining biofuel yields, thus maintaining fitness and viability under stress in algae. This study demonstrates the existence of homeostasis between starch and lipid synthesis controlled by lipid signaling in algae and expands our understanding of such processes, with biotechnological and evolutionary implications.

ISSN 

0032-0889

Link 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.01780

Appears in Collections

1. Journal Articles > Journal Articles

Registered Date

2019-05-02


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